Cold-War Anti-Soviet Activism in Germany

Group of publications published by or related to the National Alliance of Russian Solidarists (NTS), a counter-revolutionary anti-communist resistance organization active in exile.

Mostly West Berlin and Frankfurt am Main,: ca. 1936–1960. Please inquire for a complete list of contents with detailed descriptions.

A collection of internal and propagandistic publications issued by a “revolutionary anti-communist” group of Russian émigrés called the National Alliance of Russian Solidarists (NTS). Founded in exile in Serbia in the 1930s, the Solidarist movement stood for a combination of anti-Stalinism, democratic socialism, and Russian nationalism, and saw itself as neither left- nor right-wing (though some scholars have accused the NTS of Fascist leanings). With the goal of defeating Communism in Russia, during WWII the NTS also controversially sought collaboration with Nazi Germany. The organizational headquarters of NTS relocated from Belgrade to Berlin in 1941. After the war, NTS was headquartered in Munich,and later in Frankfurt, where some of the works in this collection were published and where it ran the Posev publishing house. The NTS was also behind some of the more daring Cold War efforts to distribute propaganda material in the Soviet Union, such as using hot air balloons launched in Berlin. During the Cold War, the CIA funded many of its publishing and political projects, including production of Russian language anti-communist propaganda for distribution in the Soviet Union and among the Russian-speaking military personnel stationed in East Germany, as well as the work of a publishing house “Posev” (The Sowing) and the radio station "Radio Free Russia". The organization also actively prepared agents for entering the Soviet Union to distribute anti-Soviet propaganda and to form “cells” of descent within the USSR. The Munich Institute for the Study of USSR and another institute in Bad Homburg educated members of the NTS and identified potential agents, with training materials from these institutions included in this collection. Most of the agents were apprehended and executed shortly after entering the Soviet space, leading to widespread suspicion that NTS was infiltrated by the Soviet intelligence services. Given their shadowy methods and the fact that the NTS and its members were the subject of numerous attacks and assassination attempts by Soviet agents, they were increasingly viewed with suspicion and hostility by their local communities. Many of the organization’s top members immigrated to the US in the 1950s.

This collection helps trace the history of NTS from the 1930s to the 1960s. The pre-war and WWII-era NTS periodicals, such as Koster, provided anti-communist political education for émigré youth, based on Christian and nationalist ideals. The publications of the immediate post-war period published in DP (displaced persons) camps, outlined the program of NTS for “second wave” émigrés, aiming to recruit new members from among the former Soviet citizens who found themselves outside of the Soviet territory. The bulk of the collection dates back to the Cold War when the organization served as a battleground between the Soviet intelligence and the CIA. This includes historical and ideological lectures, training materials on topography for NTS agents crossing into Soviet territory, a sealed pack of NTS pamphlets for air drops into Soviet territory as well as a camouflage edition of an NTS text posing as Alexander Dumas’ “Count de Montecristo” similarly intended for clandestine distribution.

Book ID: 51231